Bleeding in early pregnancy: When should you worry?

INTRODUCTION

Pregnancy is a unique, intriguing, and frequently delightful time in a woman’s life since it demonstrates the woman’s tremendously creative and caring qualities while also linking the present and the future. However, to best promote the health of her future kid, a pregnant lady must also be a responsible woman. The developing foetus (the name used to refer to the baby-to-be throughout the early stages of gestation) is completely reliant on its mother’s healthy body for all of its requirements. As a measure, conceiving women must take special precautions to ensure that they remain as healthy and well-nourished as possible.

The miscarriage of pregnancy before the 20th week can be physically and emotionally devastating. and it frequently occurs when the baby is not growing correctly. Symptoms include vaginal fluid, blood, or tissue passing, as well as discomfort in the stomach or lower back. Miscarriage occurs when a pregnancy ceases to develop. The pregnant tissue will eventually leave the body. Some women will have crampy, period-like discomfort, and vaginal bleeding will occur in the majority of instances. Vaginal bleeding while pregnancy might be frightening. It is not, however, usually a harbinger of peril. Bleeding may occur throughout the 1st trimester (weeks one through twelve), and the majority of women who have bleeding during maternity go on to have healthy infants. 

Nonetheless, it is critical to treat vaginal bleeding during maternity carefully. Bleeding during pregnancy might suggest an approaching miscarriage or a disease that requires immediate attention. Understanding the most frequent reasons for vaginal bleeding during maternity will help you specifically look for — and when to notify your doctor. There are reasons for vaginal bleeding/spotting during pregnancy. Some are serious, while others aren’t. 

The first / 1st trimester 

Your body endures some fairly significant changes during the first trimester – the first 3 months of pregnancy — and a lot is going on within your body. This involves increased hormone levels and the creation of a new blood circulation system. With so much stress and excitement going around, first pregnancy bleeding is rather usual. According to one big 2009 study, 30% of verified Source women had spotting or mild bleeding during the first trimester. This is a typical feature of the early stages of pregnancy. Most of the women have minor bleeding and then have good pregnancies. There are various causes of vaginal spotting or bleeding during the first trimester.  

What the most prevalent causes are? 

there are two types of non-serious and serious reasons for bleeding 

non-serious

  • Implantation bleeding
  • Intercourse or a physical exam
  • Infection

serious 

  • Miscarriage
  • Cervical polyp
  • Carrying multiple babies
  • Molar pregnancy
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Subchorionic haemorrhage

let’s get into details about the cause of early pregnancy bleeding.

NON-SERIOUS

Implantation bleeding

The fertilised egg is busily occupying space and digging into the wall of your womb when it implants (uterus). This occurs between 6 -and 12 days after conception. The egg cell hovers into its new place and should attach itself to the uterine lining to get oxygen and other nutrients. Light spots or bleeding may occur as a result of this settling in. Implantation bleeding normally occurs soon before your menstruation is about to start. This type of bleeding is frequently misdiagnosed as light menstruation. It will be difficult to tell the difference between implant bleeding and your menstruation. However, there are certain indications that what you’re witnessing isn’t a usual period.

Intercourse or a physical exam

anything that pokes at or near the uterus might aggravate it and cause blood. Yes, sex and pelvic exams! This occurs because pregnant chemicals may make your cervix, among other things, more sensitive than usual. You may see bright red stains on your underwear quickly after intercourse or a physical examination. Don’t be concerned! The bleeding normally occurs only once and then disappears on its own.

Infection 

Bleeding can also be caused by a severe yeast inflammation or infection (vaginitis). Infections generally produce spotting or mild bleeding that ranges in colour from pink to crimson. 

You may also experience the following symptoms: 

i. Itching in the lower stomach,

ii. burning when urinating,

iii. White discharge 

iv. lumps or blisters on the vaginal surface

SERIOUS

Miscarriage/ accident abortion

True, any significant blood in the 1st trimester, especially if accompanied by discomfort, may indicate a miscarriage. The miscarriages occur during the first weeks of pregnancy. 

You may have the following symptoms if you are having a miscarriage: 

i. severe vaginal bleeding 

ii. Bleeding that ranges from red to brown in hue, 

iii. discomfort in the lower stomach, 

iv. dull or intense pain in the back,

v. severe cramping

vi. the passage of blood or tissue clumps

if you have these symptoms call your doctor 

You can experience bleeding and other miscarriage symptoms without having miscarried. This is known as a threatening abortion 

Threatened abortion can be caused by a fall or damage to the stomach area, as well as an infection or exposure to certain medications 

Cervical polyp

Cervical polyps are little, thumb lesions on the cervix, which serve as the portal between the vagina and the uterus. They are not carcinogenic. They can, however, become inflamed or irritated, resulting in vivid red bleeding. Polyps affect between 2% to 5% of women.

Carrying multiple infants

If you’re expecting multiple infants you may have a higher risk of bleeding owing to factors such as implantation haemorrhage.

Molar pregnancy

A molar pregnancy, often known as a “mole,” occurs when the placenta tissue develops improperly as a result of a genetic mistake during fertilisation. A molar pregnancy is another cause of first-trimester haemorrhage.

Ectopic pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the egg attaches outside the womb. Ectopic pregnancies occur in the fallopian tube. A miscarriage is more prevalent than an ectopic pregnancy. Because a baby may only develop and thrive in the womb, ectopic pregnancy must be treated medically. 

Subchorionic haemorrhage

Subchorionic haemorrhage, often known as a hematoma, is bleeding caused by the placenta partially detaching from the womb wall. 

Among the symptoms are: 

i. haemorrhage ranging from mild to severe 

ii. Lower stomach discomfort

iii. cramps may occur if the bleeding is pink

iv. crimson, or brown.

CONCLUSION

Bleeding during the first trimester might be concerning. However, in most situations, spotting and mild bleeding are merely a natural component of the early stages of pregnancy. 

Heavy bleeding might be an indication of something more dangerous. If you have any issues or queries about bleeding, you should always consult your doctor. Pregnancy may be an emotional and symptom roller coaster. Above all, keep the people you care about and respect in the loop. Even though your symptoms are entirely normal, having somebody to talk to about it may make the experience much more bearable.